Lithium batteries can be roughly divided into two types: lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries. Lithium metal battery is a battery that uses metal lithium as the negative electrode, and the matching positive electrode material can be oxygen, elemental sulfur, metal oxide and other substances; lithium ion battery does not contain metallic lithium and is rechargeable.
Lithium metal batteries are generally batteries that use manganese dioxide as the positive electrode material, lithium metal or its alloy metals as the negative electrode material, and use a non-aqueous electrolyte solution.
Discharge reaction: Li+MnO2=LiMnO2
Lithium-ion batteries are generally batteries that use lithium alloy metal oxides as positive electrode materials, graphite as negative electrode materials, and non-aqueous electrolytes.
The reaction that takes place at the positive electrode is
The reaction that takes place at the negative electrode is
6C+xLi++xe- = LixC6
Total reaction of rechargeable battery: LiCoO2+6C = Li(1-x)CoO2+LixC6
The main difference between metal lithium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries is that metal lithium-ion batteries are disposable batteries, and lithium-ion batteries are rechargeable cycle batteries!
The principle of metal lithium-ion batteries is the same as that of ordinary dry batteries. It uses metal lithium as an electrode, and generates electrical energy through the corrosion or oxidation of metal lithium. It will be useless when it is used up and cannot be recharged. Lithium-ion batteries are generally made of lithium cobaltate. For the positive electrode, carbon is used as the negative electrode, and the electrolyte is filled in the middle to form a channel for ion dissociation. A diaphragm is used to separate the positive and negative electrodes to prevent short circuit.
Due to the very active chemical properties of lithium metal, the processing, storage and use of lithium metal have very high environmental requirements. With the development of science and technology, lithium batteries have become the mainstream.